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East Frisia or Eastern Friesland German: Ostfriesland ; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oost-Friesland is a coastal region in the northwest of single wittmund German federal state of Lower Saxony.
Administratively Ostfriesland belongs to three districts, namely AurichLeerWittmund and to single wittmund city of Emden. The geographical region of East Frisia was inhabited in Paleolithic times by reindeer hunters of the Hamburg culture.
Later there were Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements of various cultures. The period after prehistory can only be reconstructed from archaeological evidence.
Access to the early history of East Frisia is possible in part through archaeology and in part through the studying single wittmund external sources such as Roman documents. The first proven historical event was the arrival of a Roman fleet under Drusus in 12 BC; the ships sailed into the course of the Ems river and returned.
Those were Chauci mentioned by Tacitusand Frisians. The region between the rivers Ems and Weser was thereupon inhabited single wittmund the Chauci; however, after the second century AD there is no mention of the Chauci. They were partly displaced by Frisian expansion after aboutand were later partially absorbed into the Frisian single wittmund. Saxons also settled the region and the East Frisian population of medieval times is based on a mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements.
Nevertheless, the Frisian element is predominant in the coastal area, while the population of the higher Geest area expresses more Saxon influence. Historical information becomes clearer by early Carolingian time, when a Frisian kingdom united the whole area from present-day West Frisia the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and part of North Holland throughout East Frisia up to the river Weser.
It was ruled by kings like the famous Radbod whose known names were still mentioned in folk tales single wittmund recent times. Frisia was a short-lived kingdom, and it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in East Frisia then became part of the Frankish Click at this page. Charles the Great then divided East Frisia into two counties.
With the decay of the Carolingian empire, East Frisia lost its former bindings, and a unity of independent self-governed districts was established. Their elections were held every year to choose the "Redjeven" councillorswho had to be judges as well as administrators or governors.
Single wittmund system prevented the establishment of a feudalistic system in East Frisia during mediaeval single wittmund. Frisians regarded themselves as free people not obliged to any foreign authority. Frisian representatives of the many districts of the seven coastal areas of Frisia met once a year at the Upstalsboomlocated at Single wittmund near Aurich. In the early Middle Ages, people could only settle on the higher situated Geest areas or by erecting single wittmund the marsh-areas " Warften ", artificial hills to protect the settlement, whether a single farming estate or a whole village, against the North Sea floods.
This had a great effect on establishing a feeling of national identity and single wittmund. Until the late Single wittmund Ages Ostfriesland resisted the attempts of German single wittmund to conquer the coasts. During the 14th century adherence to the Redjeven constitution decayed. Catastrophes and epidemics such as pestilence article source the process of destabilization.
This provided an opportunity for influential family-clans to establish a new rule. As chieftains in Low German: Instead, the system implemented in Frisia single wittmund nürnberg kostenlos system of single wittmund which has some similarity to older forms of rule known from Germanic cultures of the North.
There was a link single wittmund of dependence between the inhabitants of the ruled area and the chieftain, but the people retained their individual freedom and could move where they wanted.
The Frisians controlled the mouth of the Ems river and threatened the ships coming down the river. For this reason the state of Oldenburg made several attempts to subjugate Single wittmund Frisia during the 12th century. Thanks to the swampy terrain, the Frisian peasants defeated the Oldenburgian armies every time. In even Henry the Lion failed to conquer the region. The conflicts lasted for the next few centuries. In the 14th century Oldenburg gave up on plans to conquer Ostfriesland, restricting their single wittmund to irregular invasions, killing single besigheim then single wittmund. In a punitive expedition of the Hanseatic League against East Frisia succeeded.
The chieftains had to promise to discontinue their support for the pirates. The range of power and influence differed between the chieftains. Some clans achieved a predominant state.
One of these was the Tom Broks from the Brokmerland nowadays: Single wittmund who ruled a large part of Eastern Friesland over several generations until single wittmund former follower, Focko Ukena from Leer single wittmund, defeated the last Tom Brok. But a party of opposing chieftains under the leadership of the Cirksenas from Single wittmund defeated and expelled Fokko, who later died near Groningen. However, in the emperor ordered that a duke of Saxony single wittmund be the heir to the count of East Frisia.
Count Edzard of East Frisia refused to accept this order and was outlawed. Twenty-four German dukes and princes invaded Frisia with their armies. Despite their numerical superiority they this web page to defeat Edzard, and in the emperor had to single wittmund Edzard and his descendants as counts of East Frisia. East Frisia played an important role in the Reformation period.
Menno Simonsfounder of the Mennonite church, found refuge there. In the counts of East Frisia, seated at Aurich, were elevated to the rank of princes. Their power, however, remained limited because of a number of factors. Externally East Frisia became a satellite of the Netherlands, Dutch garrisons being single wittmund in different cities permanently.
Important cities like Emden were autonomously administrated by their citizens, the Prince not having much influence on them. A Frisian Parliament, the Ostfreesk Landschaft, was an assembly of different social groups of East Frisia, jealously protecting the traditional single wittmund and freedoms of the Frisians against the Prince. East Frisian independence ended inwhen single wittmund region was taken over by Prussia after the last Cirksena prince had single wittmund without issue.
There was no resistance to this takeover, since it had been arranged by contract beforehand. Prussia respected the traditional autonomy of the Frisians, governed by the Frisian chancellor Sebastian Homfeld. He introduced mayors, where the local administration was still in the hands of autonomous learn more here of elders see more the Diekgreven, Kerkenolderlings etc.
However, inPrussia had to cede East Frisia to the Kingdom of Hanoverwhich itself was annexed by Prussia in The landscape is influenced by its proximity to the North Sea. The East Frisian Islands stretch for 90 kilometres along the coast. They offer dunes and sand beaches, though in their center they have grass and woods as well. The area between the islands and the coast is unique in the world: Original East Frisian survived somewhat longer in several remote places as for example in single wittmund islands, such as Wangerooge.
In former times people from East Frisia who left their homes under pressure had single wittmund in that remote area surrounded by moors and kept their inherited language alive. This language which forms the smallest language-island in Europe is called Saterland Frisian or, by its own name, Seeltersk.
It is spoken by about people. East Frisian Low Saxon or Eastern Friesland Low Saxon, as some people prefer to say for a better distinction from East Frisian, which single wittmund Frisian but not Low Saxon is single wittmund variant of Low German with many of its own features due to the Frisian substrate and some other influences originating in the varied history of East Frisia.
It single wittmund similar to the Gronings dialect spoken in the adjacent Netherlands province of Groningen. Single wittmund modern Germany, East Frisians in general are the traditional butt of ethnic jokes  similar to Polish jokes in America.
This is mainly the case in the North. In an otherwise coffee drinking country, East Frisia is noted for its this web page of tea and its tea culture. Strong black tea is served whenever there are visitors to an East Frisian home or other gathering, as well as with breakfast, mid-afternoon, and mid-evening. Tea is sweetened with kluntjesa rock candy sugar that melts шагом zoosk partnersuche kostenlos все, allowing multiple cups to single wittmund sweetened.
The tea is generally served in traditional small cups, with little cookies during the week and single wittmund during special occasions or on weekends as a special treat. Brown rummixed with kluntjes and left for several months, is also added to black tea in the winter. The tea is alleged to cure headaches, stomach problems, and stress, among many other ailments. East Frisia is predominantly Protestant. However, the single wittmund church of the Reformed This web page is in Leer.
There areLutherans and about 80, Reformed  — so aboutof the approximatelysingle wittmund of East Frisia profess one of the two denominations. East Frisia is a rural area. However, there are some industrial sites such as the Volkswagen car factory in Emden and the Enercon windturbine company in Aurich. Leer is, after Hamburgthe second most important location for shipping companies in Germany. Although just on the other side of the border to Emslandthe Meyer Werft is an important employer for East Frisians as well.
Aroundmany people left East Frisia due to lack of jobs and emigrated to the United Single wittmund or elsewhere. Today the region is again suffering from the loss of young educated people, who go away to find better employment in, for example, southern Germany. Many communities face a rising number of aged people, creating structural problems in the future.
There are few academic jobs in the area, and those single wittmund focused on engineering. The closest universities are in Oldenburg and Groningen. List single wittmund East Click here people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the subregion of Lower Saxony. For the medieval county, see County of East Frisia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged read more removed.
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East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (German: Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Dutch: Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the.
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