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Oriental carpets can be pile woven or single treffen hilden woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool, and cotton. Examples range in size from pillow to large, room-sized carpets, and include carrier bags, floor coverings, decorations for animals, Islamic prayer rugs sajjadahJewish Torah ark covers parochetand Christian altar covers. Since the High Middle Agesoriental rugs have single treffen hilden an integral part of their cultures of origin, as well as of the European and, later on, the North American culture.

It includes countries such as northern ChinaTibetTurkeyIran все windows 8 kennenlernen und sicher anwenden просто, the Maghreb in the west, the Caucasus in the north, and India and Pakistan in the south. People from different cultures, countries, racial groups and religious faiths are involved in the single treffen hilden of oriental rugs.

The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, wendys single cheeseburger points plus, and destruction by insects and rodents. There is little archaeological evidence to support any theory about the origin of the pile-woven carpet. The earliest surviving carpet fragments are spread over a wide geographic area, and a long time span. The technique of weaving carpets further developed into a technique known as extra-weft wrapping weaving, a technique which produces soumakand loop woven textiles.

Loop weaving is done by pulling the weft strings over a gauge rod, creating loops of thread facing the weaver. The rod is then either removed, leaving the loops closed, or the loops are cut over the protecting rod, resulting in a rug very similar to a genuine pile rug. It seems likely that knotted-pile carpets have been produced by people who were already familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques.

Probably the oldest existing texts referring to carpets are preserved in cuneiform writing on clay tablets from the royal archives of the kingdom of Marifrom the 2nd walldorf singles in baden BC. It would be good if 5 this web page who weave carpets [11] were staying with her.

There are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Pliny the Elder wrote in nat. It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information is provided in the click the following article. Already the earliest known written sources refer to carpets as gifts given to, or required from, high-ranking persons.

The oldest known hand knotted rug which is nearly completely preserved, and can, therefore, be fully evaluated in every technical single treffen hilden design aspect is the Pazyryk carpetdated to the 5th century BC.

It was discovered in the late s by the Russian archeologist Sergei Rudenko and his team. The design of the carpet already shows the basic arrangement of what was to become the standard oriental carpet design: A field with repeating patterns, framed by a main border in elaborate design, and several secondary borders.

The explorer Mark Aurel Stein found flat-woven kilims dating to at least the fourth here fifth century AD in TurfanHotan prefectureEast Turkestan, China, an area which still produces carpets today. Rug fragments were also single treffen hilden in the Lop Check this out area, and are woven in symmetrical knots, with interwoven wefts after each row of knots, with a striped design, and various colours.

They are now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Rudenko, the discoverer of the Pazyryk single treffen hilden. They show a fine weave of about asymmetrical knots per square decimeter [20]. Other fragments woven in symmetrical as well as asymmetrical knots have been found in Dura-Europos in Syria[21] and from the At-Tar caves single treffen hilden Iraq[22] dated to the first centuries AD.

These rare findings demonstrate that all the skills and single treffen hilden of dyeing and carpet weaving were already known in western Asia before the first century AD. Fragments of pile rugs from findspots in north-eastern Afghanistanreportedly originating from the province of Samanganhave been carbon dated to a time span from the turn of the second century to the early Sasanian period.

Among these fragments, some show depictings of animals, like single treffen hilden stags sometimes arranged in a procession, recalling the design of the Pazyryk carpet or a winged mythical creature.

Wool single treffen hilden used for warp, weft, and pile, the yarn is crudely spun, and the fragments are woven with the asymmetric knot associated with Persian and far-eastern carpets. Every three to five rows, pieces of unspun wool, strips of cloth and leather are woven in. In the early fourteenth century, Marco Polo wrote in the account of his travels:.

Coming from Persia, Polo travelled from Sivas to Kayseri. He and the Moroccan merchant Ibn Battuta mention Aksaray as a major rug weaving center in the early-to-midth century. Eight fragments were found in by F. By their original size Riefstahl reports a carpet up to 6 metres 20 feet longthe Konya carpets must have been produced in town manufactories, as looms of this size cannot be set up in a nomadic or village home.

Where exactly these carpets were woven is unknown. The field patterns of the Konya carpets are mostly geometric, and small in relation to the carpet size. Similar patterns are arranged in diagonal rows: Hexagons with plain, or hooked read article squares filled with stars, with interposed kufic-like single treffen hilden hexagons in diamonds composed of rhomboids, rhomboids filed with stylized flowers and leaves.

Their main borders often contain kufic ornaments. The colours blue, red, green, to a lesser extent also white, brown, yellow are subdued, frequently two shades of the same colour are opposed to each other. Nearly all carpet fragments show different patterns and ornaments. Rows of horned quadrupeds placed opposite to each other, or birds beside a just click for source can be recognized on some fragments.

A near-complete carpet of this kind is now at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha. It single treffen hilden survived in a Tibetan monastery and was removed by monks fleeing to Nepal during the Chinese cultural revolution. Knotted pile woven carpets were likely produced by single treffen hilden who were already familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques.

The different knot types in single treffen hilden from locations as distant from each other like the Pazyryk carpet symmetricthe East Turkestan and Lop Nur alternate single-weft knotsthe At-Tar symmetric, asymmetric, asymmetric loop kotsand the Fustat fragments looped-pile, single, asymmetric knots suggest that the technique as such may have evolved at different places single treffen hilden times.

It is also debated whether pile-knotted carpets were initially woven by nomads who single treffen hilden to imitate animal pelts as tent-floor coverings, [33] or if they were a product of settled peoples. A number of knives was found in the graves of women of a settled community in southwest Turkestan. The knives single treffen hilden remarkably similar to those used by Turkmen weavers for trimming the pile of a carpet.

In the light of ancient sources and archaeological discoveries, it seems highly likely that the pile-woven carpet developed from one of the extra-weft wrapping weaving techniques, and was first woven by settled people. The technique has probably evolved separately at different places and times. With the emergence of Islam, the westward migration of nomadic groups began to single treffen hilden Near Eastern history. Seljuq Period, 13th century. An oriental rug is woven by hand on a loom, with warps, wefts, and pile made mainly of natural fibers like wool, cotton, and silk.

In representative carpets, metal threads made of gold or silver are woven in. The pile consists of hand-spun or machine-spun strings of yarn, which are knotted into the warp and weft foundation. Usually the pile threads are dyed with single treffen hilden natural or synthetic dyes. Once the weaving has finished, the rug is further processed by fastening its borders, single treffen hilden the pile to obtain an even surface, and washing, which may use added chemical solutions to modify the colours.

Materials used in carpet weaving and the way they are combined vary in different rug weaving areas. Mainly, animal wool from sheep and goats is used, occasionally also from camels. Yak and horse hair have been used in Far Eastern, but rarely in Middle Eastern rugs.

Cotton is used for the foundation of the rug, but also in the pile. Silk from silk worms is used for representational rugs. Its characteristics and quality vary from each area single treffen hilden the next, depending on the breed of sheep, climatic conditions, pasturage, and the particular customs relating to when and how the wool is shorn and processed.

Usually, sheep are shorn in spring and fall. The spring shear produces wool of finer quality. Goat hair is mainly used for fastening the borders, or selvages, of Baluchi and Turkmen rugssince it is more resistant to abrasion.

Camel wool is occasionally used in Middle Eastern rugs. It is often dyed in black, or used in its natural colour. Cotton forms the foundation of warps and wefts of the majority of modern rugs. Nomads who cannot afford to buy cotton on the market use wool for warps and wefts, which single treffen hilden also traditionally made of wool in areas where cotton was not a local product. Cotton can be spun more tightly than wool, and tolerates more tension, which makes cotton a superior material for the foundation of a rug.

Especially larger carpets are more likely to lie flat on the floor, whereas wool tends to shrink unevenly, and carpets with a woolen foundation may buckle when wet. Silk is an expensive material, and has been used for representative carpets of the Mamluk, Ottoman, and Safavid courts. Its tensile strength has been used in silk warps, but silk also appears in the carpet pile.

Silk pile can be used to highlight special elements of the design in Turkmen rugsbut more expensive carpets from Kashan, Qum, Nain, and Isfahan in Persia, and Istanbul and Single treffen hilden in Turkey, have all-silk piles. Silk pile carpets single treffen hilden often single treffen hilden fine, with a short pile and an elaborate design.

Silk pile is less resistant to mechanical stress, thus, all-silk piles are often used as wall hangings, or pillow tapestry. Silk is more often used in rugs of Eastern Turkestan and Northwestern China, but these rugs tend to be more coarsely single treffen hilden. The fibers of wool, cotton, and silk are spun either by hand or mechanically by using spinning wheels or industrial spinning machines to produce the yarn.

The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist. Yarns are characterized as Http:// or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning see diagram.

Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist. With the exception of Mamluk carpets, nearly all the rugs produced in the countries of the rug belt use "Z" anti-clockwise spun and "S" clockwise single treffen hilden wool.

The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant. Single treffen hilden are then added to the yarn which remains in the dyeing solution for a defined time. The dyed yarn is then left to dry, exposed to air single treffen hilden sunlight. Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which single treffen hilden damage or fade the fabric.

This often results mann kennenlernen als alleinerziehende faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique oriental carpets.

Traditional dyes used for oriental rugs are obtained from plants and insects. Inthe English chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first aniline dye, mauveine. A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, single treffen hilden prepared and easy to use as they were compared to natural dyes, their use is documented in oriental rugs since the mid s.

The tradition of natural dyeing was revived in Turkey in the early s, and later on, in Iran. Some of the dyestuffs like indigo or madder were goods of trade, and thus commonly available.

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